航司飞行员为您揭秘航空术语:“文书工作” ”最后进近““空巷” 等

2020-04-12 18:16:53

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“文书工作” :"Last minute paperwork." 示例语句:“我们刚刚完成了最后一分钟的文书工作,接下来的程序会尽快进行……” 定义:对于我们许多人来说,此公告是延迟的先兆。史密斯认为,这种“文书工作”通常是对飞行计划的修订,与飞机的重量和平衡记录有关,或者仅仅是等待维护人员整理好飞行日志。

对于大多数人来说,飞行仍然是一种颇为神秘的活动。

为进一步了解商业航空旅行的世界,Business Insider咨询了帕特里克·史密斯,并寻求到一些答案。史密斯不仅是作家和航空博主,还是一名长期从事商业航空飞行的飞行员,驾驶波音757和波音767飞机。

史密斯撰写了《绝密机舱》一书,并在他的网站AskThePilot上发布,汇编了一系列常被误解的航空术语。

根据史密斯的说法,有些术语很专业很高科技,而另一些则很幽默甚至有些荒唐。以下是我们为您摘取的其中一些条目: 

幻灯片 25 - 2:  Used in a sample sentence: "Flight attendants, doors to arrival and crosscheck."  Definition: The announcement, usually made by the lead flight attendant as the plane is approaching the gate, is to verify that the emergency escape slides attached to each door have been disarmed - otherwise the slide will deploy automatically as soon as the door is opened.

”解除滑梯预位,交叉检查“: "Doors to arrival and crosscheck."

示例语句:“乘务员请注意,解除滑梯预位,交叉检查。” 

定义:通常由乘务长在飞机接近登机口时发布此公告,以确认附着在每扇门上的紧急逃生滑梯已被撤防——否则一旦打开舱门,滑梯就会自动展开。

Used in a sample sentence: "Flight attendants,  doors to arrival and crosscheck."

Definition: The announcement, usually made by  the lead flight attendant as the plane is approaching the gate,  is to verify that the emergency escape slides attached to each  door have been disarmed - otherwise the slide will deploy  automatically as soon as the door is opened.



幻灯片 25 - 3:  Used in a sample sentence: "Flight attendants, doors to arrival, crosscheck and all-call."  Definition: According to Smith, all-call is usually part of the door arming/disarming procedure. "This is a request that each flight attendant report via intercom from his or her station - a sort of flight attendant conference call," he wrote.

“全员报告”: "All-call."

示例语句:“乘务员请注意,解除滑梯预位,交叉检查,全员报告”。

定义:根据史密斯的说法,全员报告通常是门布防/撤防过程的一部分。 他写道:“这是要求每个空乘人员通过其对讲机进行报告,属于一种空乘电话会议。”

Used in a sample sentence: "Flight attendants,  doors to arrival, crosscheck and all-call."

Definition: According to Smith, all-call is  usually part of the door arming/disarming procedure. "This is a  request that each flight attendant report via intercom from his  or her station - a sort of flight attendant conference call," he  wrote.


幻灯片 25 - 4:  Definition: "A racetrack-shaped course flown during weather or traffic delays," Smith wrote. "Published holding patterns are depicted on aeronautical charts, but one can be improvised almost anywhere."

”等待航线“: "Holding pattern."

定义:史密斯写道,这属于“在天气或交通延误期间飞行跑道的状态,已公布的等待航线已在地图上标出,但这种说法几乎在任何地方都适用。”

Definition: "A racetrack-shaped course flown  during weather or traffic delays," Smith wrote. "Published  holding patterns are depicted on aeronautical charts, but one can  be improvised almost anywhere."


”此刻“ :"At this time."

示例语句:“此刻,我们请您收起所有电子设备。”

定义:即现在。史密斯将此短语称为“航空旅行的标志性委婉语”。

Used in a sample sentence: "At this time, we ask that you please put away all electronic devices."

Definition: Now. Smith calls this phrase "air  travel's signature euphemism." 



”飞航空层“ :"Flight level."

示例语句:“我们现在已经达到了3-3-0的飞航空层。飞机将继续前进,请关闭安全带标志。”

定义:史密斯写道,“这是一个关于飞行高度的技术定义,但我的解释不会让你感到太过无聊。“

据这位常年从事航空飞行的专业人员的说法,飞航空层是描述飞机在海平面上几千英尺的一种特指方式。 他解释说:“只需加上几个零即可。飞行高度3-3-0即33,000英尺。”

Used in a sample sentence: "We've now reached  our cruising altitude of flight level three-three-zero. I'll go  ahead and turn off the seatbelt sign."

Definition: "There's a technical definition of  flight level, but I'm not going to bore you with it," Smith  wrote.

According to the long-time airline pilot, flight level is simply  a fancy way of saying how many thousands of feet the plane is  above sea level.

"Just add a couple of zeroes. Flight level three-three zero is  33,000 feet," he explained.


”预登机“: "Pre-board"

示例语句:“我们现在要协助需特殊帮助的那些乘客预登机。”

定义:“预登机“一词暗示在登机前的行为。据史密斯的说法,它实际上就是表示登机,换句话说就是先登机。

Used in a sample sentence: "We would now like to  pre-board those passengers requiring special assistance."

Definition: The term "pre-board" suggests  something before boarding. According to Smith, it actually just  means boarding. Boarding first, at least.


“文书工作” :"Last minute paperwork."

示例语句:“我们刚刚完成了最后一分钟的文书工作,接下来的程序会尽快进行……”

定义:对于我们许多人来说,此公告是延迟的先兆。史密斯认为,这种“文书工作”通常是对飞行计划的修订,与飞机的重量和平衡记录有关,或者仅仅是等待维护人员整理好飞行日志。

Used in a sample sentence: "We're just finishing  up some last minute paperwork and should be underway shortly…"

Definition: For many of us, this announcement is  a precursor to a delay. According to Smith, this "paperwork" is  usually a revision of the flight plan, something to do with the  plane's weight-and-balance record, or simply waiting for the  maintenance staff to get the flight's logbook in order.


”经停站被取消“ :"Ground stop."

示例语句:“对不起,但是从这里向南行驶的所有航班,经停站均被取消。”

定义:史密斯写道,“空中交通管制限制了飞往一个或多个目的地的出发点;通常是由于交通积压所致。”

Used in a sample sentence: "Sorry folks, but  there's a ground stop on all flights headed south from here."

Definition: "The point when departures to one or  more destinations are curtailed by air traffic control; usually  due to a traffic backlog," Smith wrote.



”气流颠簸“ :"Air pocket."

定义:动荡颠簸的口语化表述。

Definition: A colloquial term for a jolt of  turbulence.



”设备“ "Equipment."

示例语句:“由于设备更换,希思罗机场的出发时间将延迟三小时。”

定义:指代飞机。 史密斯写道,“拒绝以真实名称称呼这整个行业的焦点对象,是不是有点奇怪?” 。

Used in a sample sentence: "Due to an equipment  change, departure for Heathrow is delayed three hours."

Definition: The airplane. "Is there not  something strange about the refusal to call the focal object of  the entire industry by its real name?" Smith wrote.



”飞行桌面“ :"Flightdeck."

定义:即驾驶舱。

Definition: Cockpit.



”首席官(副驾驶)“:"First Officer (Co-Pilot)."

定义:首席官就是飞机的副驾驶,坐在驾驶舱的右侧,其肩膀上戴着三个条纹。

史密斯写道:“他(她)完全有资格在飞行的所有阶段(包括起飞和着陆)操作飞机,并与机长轮流交替进行。”

Definition: The first officer or co-pilot is the  second in command of the plane and sits on the right side of the  cockpit wearing three stripes on his or her shoulder.

"He or she is fully qualified to operate the aircraft in all  stages of flight, including takeoffs and landings, and does so in  alternating turns with the captain," Smith wrote.



”最后进近“: "Final approach."

示例语句:“女士们先生们,我们现在正在向迈阿密最后进近。”

定义:史密斯写道,“对于飞行员来说,飞机到达着陆模式的最后一个直线段时,便是最后进近——即与跑道的延长中心线对齐,不需要额外的转弯或操纵。乘务员是按照下降的后半部分行动,以自己更笼统的术语来描述最终的做法。”

Used in a sample sentence: "Ladies and  gentlemen, we are now on our final approach into Miami."

Definition: "For pilots, an airplane is on final  approach when it has reached the last, straight-in segment of the  landing pattern - that is, aligned with the extended centerline  of the runway, requiring no additional turns or maneuvering,"  Smith wrote. "Flight attendants speak of final approach on their  own more general terms, in reference to the latter portion of the  descent."



”空头“: "Deadhead"

定义:根据史密斯的说法,在航班上空头的飞行员或空姐,是前往目的地进行重新排班,以作为值班任务一部分的人员。他专门澄清说:“这不同于上下班或从事个人旅行。”

Definition: According to Smith, a pilot or  flight attendant who is deadheading onboard a flight is one that  is traveling to a destination to be repositioned as part of an  on-duty assignment. "This is not the same as commuting to work or  engaging in personal travel," he clarified.




”直航“: "Direct flight."

定义:航班是否“直航”与它在飞往目的地的途中停了多少站无关,而是指飞行码不变的航线。

史密斯写道:“这是主要城市之间定期进行中间停飞,有时甚至是几次停飞的日子的结转。”

Definition: Whether or not a flight is "direct"  has nothing to do with how many stops it makes on the way to the  destination. Instead, a direct flight is defined as a routing  where the flight number does not change.

"This is a carryover from the days when flights between major  cities routinely made intermediate stops, sometimes several of  them," Smith wrote.



”不停航班“ "Nonstop flight."

定义:一趟在途中不经停的航班。

Definition: A flight that doesn't make any stops  along the way.



”EFC时间“ "EFC time."

示例语句:“我们得到EFC时间是此刻起15分钟后。”

定义:EFC时间是预期的进一步确认时间的缩写,有时也称为发布时间。史密斯说,EFC时间”是机组人员希望从当前状态中解脱出来,或免于地面停飞的时间。”

Used in a sample sentence: "We've been given an  EFC time of 15 minutes after the hour."

Definition: EFC time is short for expect further  clearance time. It's also sometimes referred to as a release  time. The EFC time "is the point at which a crew expects to be  set free from a holding pattern or exempted from a ground stop,"  Smith said.



“收轮时间”: "Wheels-up time."

定义:史密斯解释说,收轮时间“指的是预计降落的飞机完全停稳的时间,”。 

飞行人员和地勤人员必须保证飞机“尽可能在此时间内航行在或靠近跑道”。

Definition: Wheels-up time "refers to the point  when a ground-stopped plane is expected to be fully airborne,"  Smith explained.

The flight and ground crew must have the plane "at or near the  runway as close to this time as possible."



“坡道” :"The ramp."

示例语句:“很抱歉,您的手提箱被坡道上的747撞坏了。”

定义:坡道是最靠近航站的地方,也是飞机和车辆活动的(例如飞机停放区)的区域。

同样,这是航空史初期的遗留表达。 史密斯写道:“在航空业的早期,许多飞机是两栖的水上飞机。如果飞机没有在飞行,要么是在水中,要么是在坡道上。”

Used in a sample sentence: "We're sorry, your  suitcase was crushed by a 747 out on the ramp."

Definition: The ramp is the area closest to the  terminal where planes and vehicles are active such as the  aircraft parking zones.

Again, this is a relic from the early days of aviation. "In the  early days of aviation, many aircraft were amphibious seaplanes  or floatplanes. If a plane wasn't flying, it was either in the  water or it was 'on the ramp,'" Smith wrote.



“空巷” "Alley."

示例语句:“我们正在等待另一架飞机离开空巷。”

定义:航站或坡道之间的通道。

Used in a sample sentence: "We're waiting for  another plane to move out of the alley."

Definition: It's a passageway between terminals  or ramps.



“停机坪” :"Apron."

定义:根据史密斯的说法,停机坪几乎就是大型的人行道,不过不用于滑行或起跑。 这包括了停放或维修飞机的区域。

Definition: According to Smith, the apron is  pretty much any expanse of pavement that's not a taxiway or a  runway. This includes areas where planes are parked or serviced.



“最后一次快速登机呼叫” "Final and immediate boarding call."

定义:史密斯写道;“一种告诉行动迟缓的乘客尽快登机的委婉说法,它展示出的紧急感甚于“最终呼叫”或“最后呼叫”。”

Definition: "A flamboyant way of telling  slow-moving passengers to get their asses in gear," Smith wrote.  "It provides more urgency than just 'final call' or 'last call.'"



“特殊天气区域”: "Area of weather."

示例语句:“由于新泽西州上空的天气,我们将向南驶向费城。”

定义:根据史密斯的说法,这通常意味着雷暴或强降雨区。

Used in a sample sentence: "Due to an area of  weather over New Jersey, we'll be turning southbound toward  Philadelphia."

Definition: According to Smith, this usually  means a thunderstorm or a zone of heavy precipitation.



“地板区域”: "The floor area."

示例语句:“请检查座位周围的地板区域上是否有私人物品。”

定义:即机舱地板。

Used in a sample sentence: "Please check the  floor area around your seat for personal items."

Definition: The floor.


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